This section of the course examines the relationship between digital photography and the truth. 

Definition of Manipulation:

Framing , focal length, filters, juxtaposition, choice of film if analogue , etc. all contribute to how the final image will appear , and as such must also be considered manipulative.

 Image manipulation is not new : A composite image of President Lincoln with his head placed on John Calhoun’s body was produced in the 1860’s. Stalin removed political opponents when they fell from grace, the past was re-constructed.

However with the advent of more sophisticated easy to use software , mobile phone camera apps , and  smart cameras the ability to alter reality, and the truth, has grown. Prior to the digital age non-professionals  would have limited skills in manipulation. 

Aesthetic values versus integrity are equally valuable factors to consider when altering reality: the intent behind the image when the truth is in question is of upmost importance.



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